**Presentation of data in statistics :**

Once the data are collected and verified for their homogeneity and consistency, we need to present them in a neat and condensed form highlighting the essential features of the data.

Any statistical analysis is dependent on a proper presentation of the data under consideration.

It may be defined as the process of arranging data on the basis of the characteristic under consideration into a number of groups or classes according to the similarities of the observations.

Following are the objectives of classification of data:

(a) It puts the data in a neat, precise and condensed form so that it is easily understood and interpreted.

(b) It makes comparison possible between various characteristics, if necessary, and thereby finding the association or the lack of it between them.

(c) Statistical analysis is possible only for the classified data.

(d) It eliminates unnecessary details and makes data more readily understandable.

Data may be classified as -

(i) Chronological or Temporal or Time Series Data

(ii) Geographical or Spatial Series Data

(iii) Qualitative or Ordinal Data

(iv) Quantitative or Cardinal Data.

When the data are classified in respect of successive time points or intervals, they are known as time series data.

The number of students appeared for a particular exams for the last twenty years, the production of a factory per month from 1990 to 2005 etc. are examples of time series data.

Data arranged region wise are known as geographical data. If we arrange the students appeared for a particular exam in the year 2005 in accordance with different states, then we come across Geographical Data.

Data classified in respect of an attribute are referred to as qualitative data. Data on nationality, gender, smoking habit of a group of individuals are examples of qualitative data.

Lastly, when the data are classified in respect of a variable, say height, weight, profits, salaries etc., they are

known as quantitative data.

Data may be further classified as frequency data and non-frequency data. The qualitative as well as quantitative data belong to the frequency group whereas time series data and geographical data belong to the non-frequency group.

Any kind of data is usually is presented in the following modes.

(b) Tabular presentation or Tabulation

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