QUOTIENT RULE OF LOGARITHMS

Before learning the quotient rule of logarithms, we have to be aware of the parts of a logarithm.

Consider the logarithm given below.

logba

In the logarithm above, 'a' is called argument and 'b' is called base.

argumentandbase.png

Quotient Rule of Logarithm

Logarithm of the quotient of two numbers is equal to the difference of their logarithms to the same base.

loga(m/n) = logam - logan

In other words, we can simplify the subtraction of two logarithms, if the they have the same base. That is, if two logarithms with same base are in subtraction, we can write single logarithm with the given base and the argument is the quotient of two arguments.

logxa - logxb = logx(a/b)

Apart from the quotient rule of logarithms, there are two other important rules of logarithm.

(i) Product Rule

(ii) Power Rule

Product Rule of Logarithms

Logarithm of product of two numbers is equal to the sum of the logarithms of the numbers to the same base.

logamn = logam + logan

Power Rule of Logarithms

Logarithm of a number raised to a power is equal to the power multiplied by the logarithm of the number to the same base.

logamn = nlogam

Video Lesson

Solved Problems

Problem 1 :

Find the logarithm of 64 to the base 4.

Solution :

Write 64 as a power of 4.

64 = 4 x 4 x 4 

= 43

log464 = log4(4)3

= 3log44

= 3(1)

= 3

Problem 2 :

Find the logarithm 1728 to the base 2√3.

Solution :

Write 1728 as a power of 23.

1728 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 3

1728 = 26 x 33

1728 = 26 x [(3)2]3

1728 = 26 x (3)6

1728 = (23)6

log2√3(1728) = log2√3(2√3)6

Using the power rule of logarithms,

= 6log2√3(2√3)

= 6(1)

= 6

Problem 3 :

Find the logarithm of 0.0001 to the base 0.1.

Solution :

log0.10.0001 = log0.1(0.1)4

= 4log0.10.1

= 4(1)

= 4

Problem 4 :

Find the logarithm 1/64 to the base 4.

Solution :

log4(1/64) = log41 - log464

= 0 - log4(4)3

= -3log44

= -3(1)

= -3

Problem 5 :

Find the logarithm of 0.3333...... to the base 3.

Solution :

log3(0.3333......) = log3(1/3)

= log31 - log33

= 0 - 1

= -1

Problem 6 :

If logy(√2) = 1/4, find the value of y.

Write the equation in exponential form.

√2 = y1/4

Raise to the power 4 on both sides.

(√2)4 = (y1/4)4

(21/2)4 = y

22 = y

4 = y

Problem 7 :

Simplify :

(1/2)log1025 - 2log103 + log1018

Solution :

= (1/2)log1025 - 2log103 + log1018

Using power rule of logarithms,

= log10251/2 - log1032 + log1018

= log10(52)1/2 - log1032 + log1018

= log105 - log109 + log1018

= log105 + log1018 - log109

Using the product rule of logarithms,

= log10(5 x 18) - log109

= log1090 - log109

Using the quotient rule of logarithms,

= log10(90/9)

= log1010

= 1

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