**How to find domain and range of a function without graphing ?**

Here we are going to see how to find domain and range of a function without graphing.

**What is domain ?**

The domain of a function is the complete set of possible values of the independent variable.

In other words, the domain of f(x) is the set of all those real numbers for which f(x) is meaningful.

For example, let us consider the function

f(x) = (3x - 2)/(x^{2} - 1)

The above function accepts all real values except -1 and 1.If we apply x = 1 and -1, the function will become meaningless.

Hence the domain of the given function is R - {-1, 1}

**What is range ? **

The range of real function of a real variable is the step of all real values taken by f(x) at points in its domain.

To find the range of the real function, we need to follow the steps given below.

**Step 1 :**

Put y = f(x)

**Step 2 :**

Solve the equation y = f(x) for x in terms of y. Let x = g(y)

**Step 3 :**

Find the values of y for which the values of x, obtained from x = g(y) are real and its domain of f.

**Step 4 :**

The set of values of y obtained in step 3 is the range of the given function.

Let us look into some example problems to understand the above concept.

**Example 1 :**

Find the domain and range of the following function

f(x) = x / (1 + x^{2})

**Solution :**

Domain of the function f (x) :

f(x) = x / (1 + x^{2})

The denominator will never become zero for any values of x.

Thus f(x) accepts all real values of x.

Hence the domain of the given function is R.

Domain of the function f (x) :

y = x / (1 + x^{2})

y (1 + x^{2}) = x

y + yx^{2 } = x

x^{2}y - x + y = 0

Solving for x, we get

x = 1 ± √(1 - 4y^{2}) / 2y

Clearly, x will assume real values if

1 - 4y^{2 }≥ 0 and y ≠ 0

4y^{2} - 1 ≤ 0 and y ≠ 0

Divide by 4 on both sides

y^{2} - 1/4 ≤ 0

y^{2} - (1/2)^{2 }≤ 0

(y - 1/2) (y + 1/2) ≤ 0 and y ≠ 0

-1/2 ≤ y ≤ 1/2 and y ≠ 0

y ∈ [-1/2, 1/2] - {0}

But, in the original function y = x / (1 + x^{2}), y = 0 for x = 0. So we have to include "0" in the range.

Hence, the range of f (x) is [-1/2, 1/2].

**Example 2 :**

Find the domain and range of the following function

f(x) = 3 / (2 - x^{2})

**Solution :**

Domain of the function f (x) :

f(x) = 3 / (2 - x^{2})

To find domain, we need to find out for what values of x the denominator will become zero.

2 - x^{2 }= 0

Subtract 2 on both sides

2 - x^{2 }- 2 = 0 - 2

- x^{2 } = - 2 ===> x = ± √2

From this, we come to know that the values √2 and -√2 will make the denominator zero.

Hence the domain is R - {± √2}

Range of the function f(x) :

y = 3 / (2 - x^{2})

y (2 - x^{2}) = 3

2y - x^{2 }y = 3

2y - 3 = x^{2 }y

x^{2 }= (2y- 3)/y ==> x = √((2y- 3)/y)

√((2y- 3)/y) ≥ 0

y = 3/2 will make the above term as zero.

From the above number line, we can split it into three parts.

(-∞, 0) , (0, 3/2], [3/2, ∞)

Now we need to apply the values from each intervals. The intervals which satisfies the above condition will be the range.

The values from the intervals (-∞, 0), [3/2, ∞) satisfies the above condition.

Hence the range of f(x) is (-∞, 0) U [3/2, ∞).

After having gone through the stuff given above, we hope that the students would have understood "How to find domain and range of a function without graphing".

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