Direct variation and inverse variation is one of the important topics in school level math.
And there is no competitive exam without questions from direct and inverse variation.
First let us come to know what is direct variation.
Please look at the following situations.
Thus we can say, If an increase in one quantity produces a proportionate increase in another quantity, then the quantities are said to be in direct variation.
or
If a decrease in one quantity produces a proportionate decrease in another quantity, then the quantities are said to be in direct variation.
Change in both the quantities must be same.
That is,
Increase ---------------> Increase
or
Decrease ---------------> Decrease
Now, let us come to know what is inverse variation.
Please look at the following situations.
Thus we can say, If an increase in one quantity produces a proportionate decrease in another quantity, then the quantities are said to be in direct variation.
or
If a decrease in one quantity produces proportionate increase in another quantity, then the quantities are said to be in direct variation.
Change in the two quantities must be in different ways.
That is,
Increase ---------------> Decrease
or
Decrease ---------------> Increase
Problem 1 :
75 basketballs cost $1143.75. Find the cost of 26 basketballs.
Solution :
This is a situation of direct variation.
Because,
less number of basket balls -----> cost will be less
Let "m" be the cost of 26 basket balls.
No. of Basket Balls 75 26 |
Cost 1143.75 m |
Since this is direct variation, we have to apply the shortcut "cross multiplication"
75 ⋅ m = 26 ⋅ 1143.75
m = (26 ⋅ 1143.75) / 75
m = 396.50
Hence, the cost of 26 basket balls is $ 396.50
Problem 2 :
7 men can complete a work in 52 days. In how many days will 13 men finish the same work?
Solution :
This is a situation of inverse variation.
Because,
more men -----> less days
Let "m" be the required no. of days.
No. of Men 7 13 |
No. of Days 52 m |
Since this is inverse variation, we have to apply the shortcut "straight multiplication"
7 ⋅ 52 = 13 ⋅ m
(7 ⋅ 52) / 13 = m
28 = m
Hence, 13 men can complete the work in 28 days.
Problem 3 :
If David sells 2 gallons of juice for $4, how much money will he get by selling 17 gallons of juice ?
Solution :
This is a situation of direct variation.
Because,
more gallons of juice -----> amount received will be more
Let "m" be the required amount of money.
No. of Gallons 2 17 |
Value (in dollars) 4 m |
Since this is direct variation, we have to apply the shortcut "cross multiplication"
2 ⋅ m = 17 ⋅ 4
m = (17 ⋅ 4) / 2
m = 34
Hence, David will earn $34 by selling 17 gallons of juice.
Problem 4 :
A book contains 120 pages and each page has 35 lines. How many pages will the book contain if every page has 24 lines per page ?
Solution :
This is a situation of inverse variation.
Because,
less lines -----> more pages
Let "m" be the required number of pages.
No. of Pages 120 m |
No. of Lines 35 24 |
Since this is inverse variation, we have to apply the shortcut "straight multiplication"
120 ⋅ 35 = m ⋅ 24
(120 ⋅ 35) / 24 = m
175 = m
Hence, if every page has 24 lines per page, the book will contain 175 pages.
Problem 5 :
The cost of a taxi is $40.50 for 15 miles. Find the cost for 20 miles.
Solution :
This is a situation of direct variation.
Because,
more miles -----> more cost
Let "m" be the required cost.
No. of Miles 15 20 |
Cost 40.50 m |
Since this is direct variation, we have to apply the shortcut "cross multiplication"
15 ⋅ m = 20 ⋅ 40.50
m = (20 ⋅ 40.50) / 15
m = 54
Hence, the cost for 20 miles is $54.
Problem 6 :
A truck covers a particular distance in 3 hours with the speed of 60 miles per hour. If the speed is increased by 30 miles per hour, find the time taken by the truck to cover the same distance
Solution :
This is a situation of inverse variation.
Because,
more speed -----> less time
If the given speed 60 mph is increased by 30 mph,
then the new speed = 90 mph
Let "m" be the required time
No. of Hours 3 m |
Speed 60 90 |
Since this is inverse variation, we have to apply the shortcut "straight multiplication"
3 ⋅ 60 = m ⋅ 90
(3 ⋅ 60) / 90 = m
2 = m
Hence, if the speed is increased by 30 mph, time taken by the truck is 2 hours.
Problem 7 :
In a business, if A can earn $7500 in 2.5 years, At the same rate, find his earning for 4 years.
Solution :
This is a situation of direct variation.
Because,
more time -----> more earning
No. of Years 2.5 4 |
Earning 7500 m |
Since this is direct variation, we have to apply the shortcut "cross multiplication"
2.5 ⋅ m = 4 ⋅ 7500
m = (4 ⋅ 7500) / 2.5
m = 12000
Hence, the earning for 4 years is $12000.
Problem 8 :
David can complete a work in 6 days working 8 hours per day. If he works 3 hours per day, how many days will he take to complete the work ?
Solution :
This is a situation of inverse variation.
Because,
less hours per day-----> more days to complete the work
Let "m" be the required number of days.
No. of Days 6 m |
No. of Hours 8 3 |
Since this is inverse variation, we have to apply the shortcut "straight multiplication"
6 ⋅ 8 = m x 3
(6 ⋅ 8) / 3 = m
16 = m
Hence, David can complete the work in 16 days working 3 hours per day.
Problem 9 :
In 36.5 weeks, Miguel raised $2,372.50 for cancer research. How much money will he raise 20 weeks ?
Solution :
This is a situation of direct variation.
Because,
less number of weeks ----> amount raised will be less
Let "m" be the required amount of money.
Weeks 36.5 20 |
Amount of Money 2372.50 m |
Since this is direct variation, we have to apply the shortcut "cross multiplication"
36.5 ⋅ m = 20 ⋅ 2372.50
m = (20 ⋅ 2372.50) / 36.5
m = 1300
Hence, the money raised in 20 weeks is $1300.
Problem 10 :
Alex takes 15 days to reduce 30 kilograms of his weight by doing 30 minutes exercise per day. If he does exercise for 1 hour 30 minutes per day, how many days will he take to reduce the same weight ?
Solution :
This is a situation of inverse variation.
Because,
more minutes per day----> less days to reduce the weight
And also
1 hour 30 minutes per day = 90 minutes per day
Let "m" be the required number of days.
No. of Days 15 m |
No. of Minutes 30 90 |
Since this is inverse variation, we have to apply the shortcut "straight multiplication"
15 ⋅ 30 = m ⋅ 90
(15 ⋅ 30) / 90 = m
5 = m
Hence, if Alex does exercise for 1 hour 30 minutes per day, it will take 5 days to reduce 30 kilograms of weight.
Problem 11 :
Shanel gets 2/ 5 of a dollar for 1/7 hour of work. How much money does she get for 3 hours ?
Solution :
This is a situation of direct variation.
Because,
more hours -----> more earning
No. of Hours 1/7 3 |
Dollars 2/5 m |
Since this is direct variation, we have to apply the shortcut "cross multiplication"
1/7 ⋅ m = 3 ⋅ 2/5
m = 7 ⋅ 6/5
m = 42 / 5
m = 8.4
Hence, Shanel gets $8.4 for 3 hours of work.
Problem 12 :
If 5 men can paint a house in 18 hours, how many men will be able to paint it in 10 hours ?
Solution :
This is a situation of inverse variation.
Because,
less hours -----> more men
Let "m" be the required number of men.
No. of Men 5 m |
No. of Hours 18 10 |
Since this is inverse variation, we have to apply the shortcut "straight multiplication"
5 ⋅ 18 = m ⋅ 10
90 / 10 = m
9 = m
Hence, 9 men will be able to paint the house in 10 hours.
Problem 13 :
In a fort, 360 men have provisions for 21 days. If 60 more men join them, how long will the provision last ?
Solution :
This is a situation of inversion variation.
Because,
more men -----> provision will last for less days
Given : 360 men -----> 21 days
If 60 more men join, then
the total number of men = 420
Let "m" be the required number of days.
No. of Men 360 420 |
No. of Days 21 m |
Since this is inverse variation, we have to apply the shortcut "straight multiplication"
360 ⋅ 21 = 420 ⋅ m
(360 ⋅ 21) / 420 = m
18 = m
Hence, if 60 more men join, provision will last for 18 days.
Problem 14 :
John ordered 330 units of a product for $495. Then he reduced his order to 270 units. How much money does John have to pay for 270 units ?
Solution :
This is a situation of direct variation.
Because,
less units -----> less cost
Let "m" be the required amount of money
No. of Units 330 270 |
Money 495 m |
Since this is direct variation, we have to apply the shortcut "cross multiplication"
330 ⋅ m = 270 ⋅ 495
m = (270 ⋅ 495) / 330
m = 405
Hence, John has to pay $405 for 270 units.
Problem 15 :
A man can type 9 pages of a book everyday and completes it in 50 days. How many days will he take to complete it, if he types 15 pages everyday ?
Solution :
This is a situation of inverse variation.
Because,
more pages per day-----> less days to complete the book
Let "m" be the required number of days
No. of Days 50 m |
No. of Pages 9 15 |
Since this is inverse variation, we have to apply the shortcut "straight multiplication"
50 ⋅ 9 = m ⋅ 15
450 / 15 = m
30 = m
Hence, the man will complete the book in 30 days, if he types 15 pages per day.
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