Coordinate geometry, also called Analytical geometry is a branch of mathematics, in which curves in a plane are represented by algebraic equations.
For example, the equation
x^{2} + y^{2} = 1
describes a circle of unit radius in the plane. Thus coordinate geometry can be seen as a branch of mathematics which interlinks algebra and geometry, where algebraic equations are represented by geometric curves.
This connection makes it possible to reformulate problems in geometry to problems in algebra and vice versa. Thus, in coordinate geometry, the algebraic equations have visual representations thereby making our understanding much deeper.
For instance, the first degree equation in two variables
ax + by + c = 0
represents a straight line in a plane. Overall, coordinate geometry is a tool to understand concepts involved visually and created new branches of mathematics in modern times.
At the initial stage of coordinate geometry, you will study about coordinate axes, coordinate plane, plotting of points in a plane, distance between two points, section formulae, etc.
All these concepts form the basics of coordinate geometry. Let us recall some of the basic formulas.
Coordinate Plane :
The Cartesian coordinate plane is formed by two perpendicular number lines that intersect at the zeros, or the origin. The intersecting number lines divide the plane into four regions, called quadrants.
The quadrants are numbered with Roman numerals from one to four (I, II, III, IV) starting in the upper right-hand quadrant and moving counterclockwise.
Sign of x-coordinate and y-coordinate in each quadrant :
Quadrant II (-x, +y) |
Quadrant I (+x, +y) |
Quadrant III (-x, -y) |
Quadrant IV (+x, -y) |
Distance between two points :
Distance between two points A(x_{1}, y_{1}) and B(x_{2}, y_{2}) is
Mid-point of line segment :
The mid-point M, of the line segment joining A(x_{1}, y_{1}) and B(x_{2}, y_{2}) is
Section Formula (Internal Division) :
Let A(x_{1}, y_{1}) and B(x_{2}, y_{2}) be two distinct points such that point p(x, y) divides AB internally in the ratio m : n.
Then the coordinates of P are given by
Section Formula (Internal Division) :
Let A(x_{1}, y_{1}) and B(x_{2}, y_{2}) be two distinct points such that point p(x, y) divides AB externally in the ratio m : n.
Then the coordinates of P are given by
Centroid of a Triangle :
The coordinates of the centroid (G) of a triangle with vertices A(x_{1}, y_{1}), B(x_{2}, y_{2}) and C(x_{3}, y_{3}) are given by
Area of a Triangle :
Area of a Triangle :
Let A(x_{1}, y_{1}), B(x_{2}, y_{2}) and C(x_{3}, y_{3}) be the vertices of a triangle.
Then the area of ΔABC is the absolute value of the expression :
The vertices A(x_{1}, y_{1}), B(x_{2}, y_{2}) and C(x_{3}, y_{3}) of ΔABC are said to be “taken in order” if A, B, C are taken in counter-clock wise direction. If we do this, then area of DABC will never be negative.
Collinearity of three points :
Let A(x_{1}, y_{1}), B(x_{2}, y_{2}) and C(x_{3}, y_{3}) be the three distinct points. If these three points are collinear (lie on the same straight line), then ΔABC = 0.
That is,
Area of a Quadrilateral :
Let A(x_{1}, y_{1}), B(x_{2}, y_{2}), C(x_{3}, y_{3}) and D(x_{3}, y_{3}) be the vertices of a quadrilateral.
Then the area of quadrilateral ABCD is
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