# ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

Addition and Subtraction of Rational Expressions :

Here we are going to how to add or subtract two rational expressions.

Like adding and subtracting two rational numbers, we have two methods to add or subtract two rational expressions.

Addition and Subtraction of Rational Expressions with Like Denominators :

(i) Add or Subtract the numerators

(ii) Write the sum or difference of the numerators found in step (i) over the common denominator.

(iii) Reduce the resulting rational expression into its lowest form

Addition and Subtraction of Rational Expressions with unlike Denominators :

(i) Determine the Least Common Multiple of the denominator.

(ii) Rewrite each fraction as an equivalent fraction with the LCM obtained in step (i). This is done by multiplying both the numerators and denominator of each expression by any factors needed to obtain the LCM.

(iii) Follow the same steps given for doing addition or subtraction of the rational expression with like denominators.

## Addition and Subtraction of Rational Expressions - Questions

Question 1 :

Simplify

(i) [x (x + 1)/(x - 2)] + [x(1 - x)/(x - 2)]

Solution :

Since the denominator of both fractions are same, we have to put only one denominator and add the fractions. (ii)  (x + 2)/(x + 3) + (x - 1)/(x - 2)

Solution : (iii)  [x3/(x - y)] + [y3/(y - x)]

Solution :

=  [x3/(x - y)] + [y3/(y - x)]

=  [x3/(x - y)] - [y3/(x - y)]

=  (x3 - y3)/(x - y)

=  (x - y) (x2 + xy + y2)/(x - y)

=  (x2 + xy + y2)

Hence the value of the given rational expression is (x2+xy+y2).

Question 2 :

Simplify

(i)  [(2x + 1)(x - 2)/(x - 4)] - [(2x2 - 5x + 2)/(x - 4)]

Solution :

=  [(2x + 1)(x - 2)/(x - 4)] - [(2x2 - 5x + 2)/(x - 4)]

=  [(2x2 - 4x + x - 2) - (2x2 - 5x + 2)]/(x - 4)

=  [(2x2 - 3x - 2 - 2x2 + 5x - 2)]/(x - 4)

=  (2x - 4)/(x - 4)

=  2(x - 2)/(x - 4)

(ii)  4x/(x2 - 1) - (x + 1)/(x - 1)

Solution :

=  4x/(x2 - 1) - (x + 1)/(x - 1)

=  4x/(x + 1)(x - 1) - (x + 1)/(x - 1)

Taking L.C.M, we get

=  4x/(x + 1)(x - 1) - (x + 1)(x + 1)/(x - 1)(x + 1)

=  [4x - (x + 1)2]/(x + 1)(x - 1)

=  [4x - (x2 + 2x + 1)]/(x + 1)(x - 1)

=  [4x - x2 - 2x - 1]/(x + 1)(x - 1)

=  (-x2 + 2x - 1)/(x + 1)(x - 1)

=  -(x2 - 2x + 1)/(x + 1)(x - 1)

=  -(x - 1)(x - 1)/(x + 1)(x - 1)

=  -(x - 1)/(x + 1)

=  (1 - x)/(1 + x)

Question 3 :

Subtract 1/(x2 + 2) from (2x3 + x2 + 3)/(x2 + 2)2

Solution :

=  [(2x3 + x2 + 3)/(x2 + 2)2] - [1/(x2 + 2)]

By taking LCM, we get

=  [(2x3 + x2 + 3)/(x2 + 2)2] - [(x2 + 2)/(x2 + 2)2]

=  [(2x3 + x2 + 3) - (x2 + 2)/(x2 + 2)2]

=  (2x3 + x2 + 3 - x2 - 2)/(x2 + 2)2

=  (2x3+ 1)/(x2 + 2)2 After having gone through the stuff given above, we hope that the students would have understood, "Operations with Rational Expressions Worksheet".

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